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Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074

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BuyFindarrow_forward

Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074
Textbook Problem

When sodium and oxygen react, one of the products obtained is sodium peroxide, Na2O2. The anion in this compound is the peroxide ion, O22–. Write the electron configuration for this ion in molecular orbital terms, and draw the electron dot structure.

  1. (a) Compare the ion with the O2 molecule with respect to the following: magnetic character, net number of σ and π bonds, bond order, and oxygen-oxygen bond length.
  2. (b) Compare the valence bond and MO pictures with regard to the number of σ and π bonds and the bond order.

(a)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The electron configuration of O22 should be written in molecular orbital term and its electron dot structure has to be drawn. The magnetic character, net number of σandΠ bonds, bond order and oxygen- oxygen bond length of the ion and the O2 molecule should be compared  

Concept Introduction:

Valance bond (VBT) theory: This theory explain a chemical bonding theory that explains the bonding between two atoms is caused by the overlap of half-filled atomic orbitals. The two atoms share each other's unpaired electron to form a filled orbital to form a hybrid orbital and bond together.

Hybridization:  When the atomic orbitals mix to form new atomic orbitals, the new orbitals have the same total electron capacity as the old ones. The properties and energies of the new, hybridized orbitals are an 'average' of the original unhybridized orbitals.

Molecular orbital (MO) theory:  is a method for determining molecular structure in which electrons are not assigned to individual bonds between atoms, but are treated as moving under the influence of the nuclei in the whole molecule.

Bond order: The bond order has defined as the net number of bonding electrons pairs linking a pair of atoms. This same concept can be applied directly to molecular orbital theory, but not bond order is defined as.

Bondorder=12(NumberofelectronsinbondoingMOs-NumberofelectronsinantibondingMOs)

Paramagnetic: The Paramagnetic properties are due to the presence of some unpaired electrons, and from the realignment of the electron paths caused by the external magnetic field.

Diamagnetic: The molecule or atoms have paired electrons in respective shell, this type of alignments diamagnetic.

Sigma (σ) bonds are the bonds in which shared hybrid orbital’s electron density are concentrated along the internuclear axis.

Pi (π) bonds are the bonds in which shared unhybridized orbital’s (p, d…) electron density are concentrated in above and below of the plane of the molecule.

Explanation

Electron dot formula or Lewis structure for O22 ion is,

Both the oxygen atoms are bonded through a sigma bond. Therefore the net σ bond in the O22 ion is one.

O22 ion has 18 electrons and its electronic configuration in term of MO theory can be written as follows,

(σ1s)2(σ*1s)2(σ2s)2(σ*2s)2(σ2p)2( π2p)4( π*2p)4 

Diamagnetism is the result of absence of unpaired electrons. The O22 ion does not have unpaired electrons and so it exhibit diamagnetic properties.

The electronic configuration helps to find the bond order of O22 ion.

Thus,

Bondorder=12(NumberofelectronsinbondoingMOs-NumberofelectronsinantibondingMOs)Bondorder=(108)2=22=1                                                                                                                                                                                            

Electron dot formula or Lewis structure for O2 molecule is,

Both the oxygen atoms are bonded through a sigma bond, the double bond shows the presence of one pi bond

(b)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

It should be compared the valence bond and MO pictures with regard to the number of σandΠ bonds and the bond order.

Concept Introduction:

Valance bond (VBT) theory: This theory explain a chemical bonding theory that explains the bonding between two atoms is caused by the overlap of half-filled atomic orbitals. The two atoms share each other's unpaired electron to form a filled orbital to form a hybrid orbital and bond together.

Hybridization:  When the atomic orbitals mix to form new atomic orbitals, the new orbitals have the same total electron capacity as the old ones. The properties and energies of the new, hybridized orbitals are an 'average' of the original unhybridized orbitals.

Molecular orbital (MO) theory:  is a method for determining molecular structure in which electrons are not assigned to individual bonds between atoms, but are treated as moving under the influence of the nuclei in the whole molecule.

Bond order: The bond order has defined as the net number of bonding electrons pairs linking a pair of atoms. This same concept can be applied directly to molecular orbital theory, but not bond order is defined as.

Bondorder=12(NumberofelectronsinbondoingMOs-NumberofelectronsinantibondingMOs)

Sigma (σ) bonds are the bonds in which shared hybrid orbital’s electron density are concentrated along the internuclear axis.

Pi (π) bonds are the bonds in which shared unhybridized orbital’s (p, d…) electron density are concentrated in above and below of the plane of the molecule.

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