Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074



Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074
Textbook Problem

Using an orbital box diagram and noble gas notation, show the electron configuration of gallium, Ga. Give one possible set of quantum numbers for the highest-energy electron.

Interpretation Introduction


The electronic configuration and quantum number of Gallium (Ga) has to be derived.

Concept Introduction:

Electronic configuration: The electronic configuration is the distribution of electrons of an given molecule or respective atoms in atomic or molecular orbitals. We consider the electronic configuration of neon atom is 1s22s22p6, the electronic configurations describes each electrons as moving independently orbitals, an average filed created ay all other orbitals.

The aufbau principle: This rule statues that ground state of an atom or ions electrons fill atomic orbitals of the lowest available energy levels before occupying higher levels. If consider the 1s shell is filled the 2s subshell is occupied.

Hund's Rule: The every orbital in a subshell is singly occupied with one electron before any one orbital is doubly occupied, and all electrons in singly occupied orbitals have the same spin.

Quantum numbers: These terms are explained for the distribution of electron density in an atom. They are derived from the mathematical solution of Schrodinger’s equation for the hydrogen atom.  The types of quantum numbers are the principal quantum number (n), the angular momentum quantum number (l), the magnetic quantum number (ml) and the electron spin quantum number (ms). Each atomic orbital in an atom is categorized by a unique set of the quantum numbers.


The Gallium (Ga) element electronic configuration, noble gas notation and possible quantum numbers are shown below.

Electronic configurationofGallium(Ga):  [Ar]3d104s24p1

The possible quantum number of Gallium (Ga) atom: n=4,l=1,ml=0,+1, -1andms=±12

AtomicnumberofGallium(Ga)=31Complete (spdf)notationof(Mg)=1s22s22p63s23p63d104s24p1Orbital filling method=1s22s22p63s23p63d104s24p1

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