Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074



Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074
Textbook Problem

The most common oxidation state of a rare earth element is +3.

  1. a) What is the ground state electron configuration of Sm3+?
  2. b) Write a balanced chemical equation for the reaction of Sm(s) and O2(g) to form samarium(III) oxide.


Interpretation Introduction


The ground state electron configuration of Sm3+ has to be written.

Concept Introduction:

Electronic configuration: The electronic configuration is the distribution of electrons (e-) of an given molecule or respective atoms in atomic or molecular orbitals.

The aufbau principle: This rule statues that ground state of an atom or ions electrons fill atomic orbitals of the lowest available energy levels before occupying higher levels. If consider the 1s shell is filled the 2s subshell is occupied.

Hund's Rule: The every orbital in a subshell is singly occupied with one electron before any one orbital is doubly occupied, and all electrons in singly occupied orbitals have the same spin.

General electronic configuration of f-block: The general the electronic configuration of these elements is (n-2)f1-14(n-1)d1–10ns1–2. The (n–1) stands for the inner d orbitals which may have one to ten electrons and the outermost ns orbital may have one or two electrons. The two rows of elements present at the bottom of the periodic table are called the (4f) series or lanthanides and (5f) or actinides. They are also called inner transition elements.


Electronic configuration of samarium ion (Sm) f-block elements orbital filling method is shown below.

The (Sm) is located at 6th period in the periodic table, now finding the preceding noble gas is Xenon and valence electrons are filled in the orbitals (s, p, d and f).

Electron configuration of Samarium (Sm): It has two electrons in the (6s) orbitals and (6) electrons in 4f orbitals, the electrons filling method presented below

  Atomicnumber (Z)ofSamarium(Sm)= 62spdfwith noble gas notation=[Xe]4f66s2Orbitalboxnotation       = [Xe]4f66s2

Electron configuration of Samarium ion: When (Sm) was oxidized to (Sm3+) ions, it lost for three electrons in outermost (6s) and (4f) orbitals


Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: The balanced chemical equation for the given reaction has to be written.

Concept Introduction:

Balancing chemical reaction: The number of elements or ion present in the reactant side must be equal to the number of elements in the product side.

  • Balance the other atoms except Oxygen.
  • Balance the Oxygen atoms by adding the oxygen molecule on the deficiency side.

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