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Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074

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BuyFindarrow_forward

Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074
Textbook Problem

Without looking at the figures for the periodic properties, compare the three elements B, AI and C.

  1. (a) Place the three elements in order of increasing atomic radius.
  2. (b) Rank the elements in order of increasing ionization energy.
  3. (c) Which element, B or C, is expected to have the more negative electron attachment enthalpy value?

a)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The given three elements B, Al, and C have to be arranged in the increasing atomic radius.

Concept Introduction:

Atomic radius: The concept explain chemical element is a measured of the size of its atoms, in other words to measure the distance from the center of the nucleus to the boundary of the surrounding cloud of number of electrons.

Explanation

The atomic radii decrease on moving across a period table, the carbon (C) is located in the second periodic next to Boron. So Carbon has a smaller atomic radius when compare to boron (B). Aluminum atom is located in the third period that is below to Boron atom. As known the radius increases on moving down a periodic group. The reason is (B) and (Al) has same group (Group 13), hence we conclude the Aluminum must be increase atomic radii value...

b)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The elements B, Al, and C have to be arranged in the increasing ionization energy.

Concept Introduction:

Ionization energy (IE): The ionization energy is the required to remove an electron from an atom in the gas phase.

General formula of ionization energy = Atom in the ground state(g)Atom+(g)+eΔU=Ionizationenergy(IE)

Electronegativity: It is measure of the tendency of an atom to attract a bonding pair of electrons. For example the (F) fluorine is more electronegative element is assigned a value f (4.0) and values range down to cesium (CS) and francium (Fr) which are the largest electronegative at (0.7) range, generally the Pauling scale is used to analyze the electronegative range (or) properties.

c)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The element B or C that has the more negative electron attachment enthalpy value has to be identified.

Concept Introduction:

Electronegativity: It is measure of the tendency of an atom to attract a bonding pair of electrons. For example the (F) fluorine is more electronegative element is assigned a value  (4.0) and values range down to cesium (CS) and francium (Fr) which are the largest electronegative at (0.7) range, generally the Pauling scale is used to analyze the electronegative range (or) properties.

Electron attachment enthalpy: ΔEAH is defined as the enthalpy change occurring when a gaseous atom adds an electron forming a gaseous anion.

  A(g)+e-A-(g)ElectronattachmententhalpyEAH

Electron affinity: The atoms are closely related to ΔEAH. The (EA) is equal in magnitude but opposite is sign to the internal energy change associated with a gas atom adding an electron.

  A(g)+e-A-(g)----ElectronaffinityEA=-ΔU

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