Chapter 7, Problem 57GQ

### Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074

Chapter
Section

### Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074
Textbook Problem

# Answer each of the following questions: (a) Of the elements S, Se, and Cl, which has the largest atomic radius? (b) Which has the larger radius, Br or Br−? (c) Which should have the largest difference between the first and second ionization energy: Si, Na, P, or Mg? (d) Which has the largest ionization energy: N, P, or As? (e) Which of the following has the largest radius: O2−, N3−, or F−?

a)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The largest atomic radius out of given elements S, Se, and Cl has to be identified.

Concept Introduction:

Electronic configuration: The electronic configuration is the distribution of electrons of a given molecule or respective atoms in atomic or molecular orbitals. The important there rules for electronic configuration given below.

Atomic radius: The concept explain chemical element is a measured of the size of its atoms, in other words to measure the distance from the center of the nucleus to the boundary of the surrounding cloud of number of electrons.

Ionization energy (IE): The ionization energy is the required to remove an electron from an atom in the gas phase.

General formula of ionization energy= Atom in the ground state(g)Atom+(g)+eΔU=Ionizationenergy(IE)

Increase and decrease electro negativity: The less vacancy electrons an atoms has the least it will gain of electrons. Moreover the electron affinity decrease down the groups and from right to left across the periods on the periodic table, the reason is electrons are placed in a higher energy level far from the nucleus thus a decrease from its pull.

Explanation

Generally, atomic radii decreases along the period and increases down the group. Here, the Selenium (Se) atom has a larger atomic radius (117 pm) when compare to Sulfur and chlorine atoms and those ato...

b)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The larger atomic radius out of given elements Br and Br- has to be identified.

Concept Introduction:

Electronic configuration: The electronic configuration is the distribution of electrons of a given molecule or respective atoms in atomic or molecular orbitals. The important there rules for electronic configuration given below.

Atomic radius: The concept explain chemical element is a measured of the size of its atoms, in other words to measure the distance from the center of the nucleus to the boundary of the surrounding cloud of number of electrons.

Ionization energy (IE): The ionization energy is the required to remove an electron from an atom in the gas phase.

General formula of ionization energy= Atom in the ground state(g)Atom+(g)+eΔU=Ionizationenergy(IE)

Increase and decrease electro negativity: The less vacancy electrons an atoms has the least it will gain of electrons. Moreover the electron affinity decrease down the groups and from right to left across the periods on the periodic table, the reason is electrons are placed in a higher energy level far from the nucleus thus a decrease from its pull.

c)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The element that has the largest difference between the first and second ionization energy has to be predicted.

Concept Introduction:

Electronic configuration: The electronic configuration is the distribution of electrons of a given molecule or respective atoms in atomic or molecular orbitals. The important there rules for electronic configuration given below.

Atomic radius: The concept explain chemical element is a measured of the size of its atoms, in other words to measure the distance from the center of the nucleus to the boundary of the surrounding cloud of number of electrons.

Ionization energy (IE): The ionization energy is the required to remove an electron from an atom in the gas phase.

General formula of ionization energy= Atom in the ground state(g)Atom+(g)+eΔU=Ionizationenergy(IE)

Increase and decrease electro negativity: The less vacancy electrons an atoms has the least it will gain of electrons. Moreover the electron affinity decrease down the groups and from right to left across the periods on the periodic table, the reason is electrons are placed in a higher energy level far from the nucleus thus a decrease from its pull.

d)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The given element that has the largest ionization energy has to be predicted.

Concept Introduction:

Electronic configuration: The electronic configuration is the distribution of electrons of a given molecule or respective atoms in atomic or molecular orbitals. The important there rules for electronic configuration given below.

Atomic radius: The concept explain chemical element is a measured of the size of its atoms, in other words to measure the distance from the center of the nucleus to the boundary of the surrounding cloud of number of electrons.

Ionization energy (IE): The ionization energy is the required to remove an electron from an atom in the gas phase.

General formula of ionization energy= Atom in the ground state(g)Atom+(g)+eΔU=Ionizationenergy(IE)

Increase and decrease electro negativity: The less vacancy electrons an atoms has the least it will gain of electrons. Moreover the electron affinity decrease down the groups and from right to left across the periods on the periodic table, the reason is electrons are placed in a higher energy level far from the nucleus thus a decrease from its pull.

e)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The largest radius of given ion has to be predicted.

Concept Introduction:

Electronic configuration: The electronic configuration is the distribution of electrons of a given molecule or respective atoms in atomic or molecular orbitals. The important there rules for electronic configuration given below.

Atomic radius: The concept explain chemical element is a measured of the size of its atoms, in other words to measure the distance from the center of the nucleus to the boundary of the surrounding cloud of number of electrons.

Ionization energy (IE): The ionization energy is the required to remove an electron from an atom in the gas phase.

General formula of ionization energy= Atom in the ground state(g)Atom+(g)+eΔU=Ionizationenergy(IE)

Increase and decrease electro negativity: The less vacancy electrons an atoms has the least it will gain of electrons. Moreover the electron affinity decrease down the groups and from right to left across the periods on the periodic table, the reason is electrons are placed in a higher energy level far from the nucleus thus a decrease from its pull.

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