   Chapter 7, Problem 38PS

Chapter
Section
Textbook Problem

Identify the element that corresponds to each of the simplified photoelectron spectral data given below. (Energy data taken from D. A. Shirley, R. L. Martin, S. P. Kowalczyk. F. R. McFeely, and L Ley: ″Core-electron binding energies of the first thirty elements″ Physical Review B, Vol. 15, pp. 544-552, 1977.) (a) There are peaks at energies corresponding to 1079, 70.8, 38.0, 5.14 eV, corresponding to 2, 2, 6, and 1 electrons, respectively. (b) There are peaks at energies corresponding to 4043, 443, 351, 48.4, 30.1, and 6.11 eV, corresponding to 2, 2, 6, 2, 6, and 2 electrons, respectively. (c) There are peaks at energies corresponding to 5475, 638, 524, 77, 47, 12. and 7.3 eV, corresponding to 2, 2, 6, 2, 6, 3, and 2 electrons, respectively.

a)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The element that corresponds to each of the given simplified photoelectron spectral data has to be identified.

Concept Introduction:

Photoelectron spectroscopy: This is to energy measurement of electrons emitted from solids, gases or liquids by the photoelectric effect, in order to determine the binding energies of electrons in a substance.

This spectroscopy using the experimental technique that provides information about the energies of electrons in atoms and molecules and yields evidence in favor  of our modern orbital model of electrons in atoms. In this technique sample atoms are bombarded with high-energy electron magnetic radiation.

The key to understanding PES is that all of the ejected electrons results from bombarding the atom with photons of the same energy (hv). The energy goes into ejecting the electrons from the atom corresponding to the ionization energy (IE) of the electron with the remainder going into kinetic energy of the electron. The formula of photoelectron spectroscopy hv= IE + KE (electron)

Electron attachment enthalpy: ΔEAH is defined as the enthalpy change occurring when a gaseous atom adds an electron forming a gaseous anion.

A(g)+e-A-(g)----ElectronattachmententhalpyEAH

Screening effect: The screening effect can be defined as a reduction in the effective nuclear charge on the electron cloud, due to a difference in the attraction forces on the electrons in the atom. It is also referred to as the screening effect (or) atomic shielding.

Explanation

The each orbital spectral value are we discussed below.

Na[1s22s22p63s1]1s22s22p63s1

b)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The element that corresponds to each of the given simplified photoelectron spectral data has to be identified.

Concept Introduction:

Photoelectron spectroscopy: This is to energy measurement of electrons emitted from solids, gases or liquids by the photoelectric effect, in order to determine the binding energies of electrons in a substance.

This spectroscopy using the experimental technique that provides information about the energies of electrons in atoms and molecules and yields evidence in favor  of our modern orbital model of electrons in atoms. In this technique sample atoms are bombarded with high-energy electron magnetic radiation.

The key to understanding PES is that all of the ejected electrons results from bombarding the atom with photons of the same energy (hv). The energy goes into ejecting the electrons from the atom corresponding to the ionization energy (IE) of the electron with the remainder going into kinetic energy of the electron. The formula of photoelectron spectroscopy hv= IE + KE (electron)

Electron attachment enthalpy: ΔEAH is defined as the enthalpy change occurring when a gaseous atom adds an electron forming a gaseous anion.

A(g)+e-A-(g)----ElectronattachmententhalpyEAH

Screening effect: The screening effect can be defined as a reduction in the effective nuclear charge on the electron cloud, due to a difference in the attraction forces on the electrons in the atom. It is also referred to as the screening effect (or) atomic shielding.

c)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The element that corresponds to each of the given simplified photoelectron spectral data has to be identified.

Concept Introduction:

Photoelectron spectroscopy: This is to energy measurement of electrons emitted from solids, gases or liquids by the photoelectric effect, in order to determine the binding energies of electrons in a substance.

This spectroscopy using the experimental technique that provides information about the energies of electrons in atoms and molecules and yields evidence in favor  of our modern orbital model of electrons in atoms. In this technique sample atoms are bombarded with high-energy electron magnetic radiation.

The key to understanding PES is that all of the ejected electrons results from bombarding the atom with photons of the same energy (hv). The energy goes into ejecting the electrons from the atom corresponding to the ionization energy (IE) of the electron with the remainder going into kinetic energy of the electron. The formula of photoelectron spectroscopy hv= IE + KE (electron)

Electron attachment enthalpy: ΔEAH is defined as the enthalpy change occurring when a gaseous atom adds an electron forming a gaseous anion.

A(g)+e-A-(g)----ElectronattachmententhalpyEAH

Screening effect: The screening effect can be defined as a reduction in the effective nuclear charge on the electron cloud, due to a difference in the attraction forces on the electrons in the atom. It is also referred to as the screening effect (or) atomic shielding.

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