   Chapter 7, Problem 55GQ

Chapter
Section
Textbook Problem

Which of the following ions are unlikely to be found in a chemical compound: Cs+, ln4+, Fe6+, Te2−, Sn5+, and I−? Explain briefly.

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The given following ion unlikely to be found in a chemical compound has to be predicted.

Concept Introduction:

Electronic configuration: The electronic configuration is the distribution of electrons of an given molecule or respective atoms in atomic or molecular orbital’s. The important there rules for electronic configuration given below.

Aufbau principle: This rule statues that ground state of an atom or ions electrons fill atomic orbitals of the lowest available energy levels before occupying higher levels. If consider the 1s shell is filled the 2s subshell is occupied.

Hund's Rule: The every orbital in a subshell is singly occupied with one electron before any one orbital is doubly occupied, and all electrons in singly occupied orbitals have the same spin.

Pauli exclusion rule: an atomic orbital may describe at most two electrons, each with opposite spin direction.

Atomic radius: The concept explain chemical element is a measured of the size of its atoms, in other words to measure the distance from the center of the nucleus to the boundary of the surrounding cloud of number of electrons.

Increase and decrease electro negativity: The less vacancy electrons an atoms has the least it will gain of electrons. Moreover the electron affinity decrease down the groups and from right to left across the periods on the periodic table, the reason is electrons are placed in a higher energy level far from the nucleus thus a decrease from its pull.

Explanation
1. 1. A cesium atom has one extra electrons in outer shell and donates to attain noble gas configuration. Thus, the cesium Cs becomes cesium ion (Cs+). Hence, it is likely to from a (Cs+) ion.
2. 2.  The Indium (In): Electronic configuration [Kr]4d105s25p1 is a p-block element and has only three valence electron; removing even more electron is impossible and is unlikely to form a (4+) ion.
3. 3.  Iron (Fe) [Ar]3d64s2 loss for six electrons in outermost shell becomes into [Ar]3d24s0, so six electrons loss for these shell and hence, likely to from (Fe6+) ions.
4. 4.  Tellurium (Te): Electronic configuration [Kr]4d105s25p4 Gain two electrons into outermost valence shell and converted into (Te2-) ions [Kr]4d105s25p6, So gaining of electrons are possible due to vacant orbitals

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