   Chapter 7, Problem 39PS

Chapter
Section
Textbook Problem

Explain why the photoelectron spectra of hydrogen and helium each has one peak whereas that for lithium has two peaks. What would be the relative intensity of each of the peaks in these spectra?

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The hydrogen (H) and helium (He) atoms are produce for one peak in photo electronic spectra while lithium (Li) atom is produce for two peaks in electronic spectra, why lithium atom is produce in two peaks this concept need to explain given the statement.

Concept Introduction:

Photoelectron spectroscopy: This is to energy measurement of electrons emitted from solids, gases or liquids by the photoelectric effect, in order to determine the binding energies of electrons in a substance.

This spectroscopy using the experimental technique provides information about the energies of electrons in atoms and molecules and yields evidence in favor of our modern orbital model of electrons in atoms. In this technique sample atoms are bombarded with high-energy electron magnetic radiation.

The key to understanding PES is that all of the ejected electrons results from bombarding the atom with photons of the same energy (hv). The energy goes into ejecting the electrons from the atom corresponding to the ionization energy (IE) of the electron with the remainder going into kinetic energy of the electron. The formula of photoelectron spectroscopy hv= IE + KE(electron)

Screening effect: The screening effect can be defined as a reduction in the effective nuclear charge on the electron cloud, due to a difference in the attraction forces on the electrons in the atom. It is also referred to as the screening effect (or) atomic shielding.

Explanation

Let us consider for orbital filling method for Lithium (Li)

AtomicnumberofLithium(Li)= 3spdfwith orbtital notation=Li[1s22s1]Orbital filling method       1s22s1

Let us consider for orbital filling method for Hydrogen and Helium atoms.

AtomicnumberofHygrogen(H)=1spdfwith orbtital notation=H[1s1]Orbital filling method

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