Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074



Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074
Textbook Problem

The following questions use concepts from this and previous chapters.

Why is the radius of Li+ so much smaller than the radius of Li? Why is the radius of F so much larger than the radius of F?

Interpretation Introduction


The radius of Li+ is smaller than Li and the radius of F is larger than F

Concept Introduction:

Atomic radius: The concept explain chemical element is a measured of the size of its atoms, in other words to measure the distance from the center of the nucleus to the boundary of the surrounding cloud of number of electrons.

Increase and decrease electro negativity: The less vacancy electrons an atoms has the least it will gain of electrons. Moreover the electron affinity decrease down the groups and from right to left across the periods on the periodic table, the reason is electrons are placed in a higher energy level far from the nucleus thus a decrease from its pull.

Electron attachment enthalpy: ΔEAH is defined as the enthalpy change occurring when a gaseous atom adds an electron forming a gaseous anion.


  • Let us consider the electronic configuration of Lithium (Li).

  AtomicnumberofLithium(Li)= 3spdfwith orbtital notation=Li[1s22s12p0]Orbital filling method       1s22s12p0

Lithium (Li) atom has a largest atomic radius (Li= 152 pm) when compare to lithium (Li+) ion has atomic radius 78 pm; removal of electron from the outer valence shell shrinks the size of the ion due to the increased nucleon count than the electron count.

  • Let us consider the orbital filling method of Florine and Florine ions (F-) ions.

AtomicnumberofFlurine(F)=9spdfwith orbtital notation=[1s22s22p5]Orbital filling method        <

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