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Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074

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BuyFindarrow_forward

Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074
Textbook Problem

Name the element corresponding to each characteristic below.

  1. (a) the element with the electron configuration 1s22s22p63s23p3
  2. (b) the alkaline earth element with the smallest atomic radius
  3. (c) the element with the largest ionization energy in Croup 5A
  4. (d) the element whose 2+ ion has the configuration [Kr]4d5
  5. (e) the element with the most negative electron attachment enthalpy in Croup 7A
  6. (f) the element whose electron configuration is [Ar]3d104s2

a)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The element with the given electron configuration has to be named.

Concept Introduction:

Electronic configuration: The electronic configuration is the distribution of electrons of an given molecule or respective atoms in atomic or molecular orbitals.

The important there rules for electronic configuration given below:

Aufbau principle: This rule statues that ground state of an atom or ions electrons fill atomic orbitals of the lowest available energy levels before occupying higher levels. If consider the 1s shell is filled the 2s subshell is occupied.

Hund's Rule: The every orbital in a subshell is singly occupied with one electron before any one orbital is doubly occupied, and all electrons in singly occupied orbitals have the same spin.

Pauli exclusion rule: an atomic orbital may describe at most two electrons, each with opposite spin direction.

Atomic radius: The concept explain chemical element is a measured of the size of its atoms, in other words to measure the distance from the center of the nucleus to the boundary of the surrounding cloud of number of electrons.

Increase and decrease electro negativity: The less vacancy electrons an atoms has the least it will gain of electrons. Moreover the electron affinity decrease down the groups and from right to left across the periods on the periodic table, the reason is electrons are placed in a higher energy level far from the nucleus thus a decrease from its pull.

Electron attachment enthalpy: ΔEAH is defined as the enthalpy change occurring when a gaseous atom adds an electron forming a gaseous anion.

  A(g)+e-A-(g)----ElectronattachmententhalpyEAH

Electron affinity: The atoms is closely related to ΔEAH. The (EA) is equal in magnitude but opposite is sign to the internal energy change associated with a gas atom adding an electron.

  A(g)+e-A-(g)----ElectronaffinityEA=-ΔU       

Explanation

The number of element is equal to the atomic number of element; so, the unknown element that has atomic number 15 is PHOSPHORUS.

  Atomicnumberofphosphorus(P)=15Complete (spdf)notationof(P)=1s22s22p63s23p3Orbital filling method=1s22s22p6

b)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The alkaline earth element with the smallest atomic radius has to be identified.

Concept Introduction:

Electronic configuration: The electronic configuration is the distribution of electrons of an given molecule or respective atoms in atomic or molecular orbitals.

The important there rules for electronic configuration given below:

Aufbau principle: This rule statues that ground state of an atom or io ns electrons fill atomic orbitals of the lowest available energy levels before occupying higher levels. If consider the 1s shell is filled the 2s subshell is occupied.

Hund's Rule: The every orbital in a subshell is singly occupied with one electron before any one orbital is doubly occupied, and all electrons in singly occupied orbitals have the same spin.

Pauli exclusion rule: an atomic orbital may describe at most two electrons, each with opposite spin direction.

Atomic radius: The concept explain chemical element is a measured of the size of its atoms, in other words to measure the distance from the center of the nucleus to the boundary of the surrounding cloud of number of electrons.

Increase and decrease electro negativity: The less vacancy electrons an atoms has the least it will gain of electrons. Moreover the electron affinity decrease down the groups and from right to left across the periods on the periodic table, the reason is electrons are placed in a higher energy level far from the nucleus thus a decrease from its pull.

Electron attachment enthalpy: ΔEAH is defined as the enthalpy change occurring when a gaseous atom adds an electron forming a gaseous anion.

  A(g)+e-A-(g)----ElectronattachmententhalpyEAH

Electron affinity: The atoms is closely related to ΔEAH. The (EA) is equal in magnitude but opposite is sign to the internal energy change associated with a gas atom adding an electron.

  A(g)+e-A-(g)----ElectronaffinityEA=-ΔU       

c)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

In Group 5A, element with the largest ionization energy has to be identified.

Concept Introduction:

Electronic configuration: The electronic configuration is the distribution of electrons of an given molecule or respective atoms in atomic or molecular orbitals.

The important there rules for electronic configuration given below:

Aufbau principle: This rule statues that ground state of an atom or ions electrons fill atomic orbitals of the lowest available energy levels before occupying higher levels. If consider the 1s shell is filled the 2s subshell is occupied.

Hund's Rule: The every orbital in a subshell is singly occupied with one electron before any one orbital is doubly occupied, and all electrons in singly occupied orbitals have the same spin.

Pauli exclusion rule: an atomic orbital may describe at most two electrons, each with opposite spin direction.

Atomic radius: The concept explain chemical element is a measured of the size of its atoms, in other words to measure the distance from the center of the nucleus to the boundary of the surrounding cloud of number of electrons.

Increase and decrease electro negativity: The less vacancy electrons an atoms has the least it will gain of electrons. Moreover the electron affinity decrease down the groups and from right to left across the periods on the periodic table, the reason is electrons are placed in a higher energy level far from the nucleus thus a decrease from its pull.

Electron attachment enthalpy: ΔEAH is defined as the enthalpy change occurring when a gaseous atom adds an electron forming a gaseous anion.

  A(g)+e-A-(g)----ElectronattachmententhalpyEAH

Electron affinity: The atoms is closely related to ΔEAH. The (EA) is equal in magnitude but opposite is sign to the internal energy change associated with a gas atom adding an electron.

  A(g)+e-A-(g)----ElectronaffinityEA=-ΔU       

d)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The element whose 2+ ion has the configuration [Kr]4d5 has to be identified.

Concept Introduction:

Electronic configuration: The electronic configuration is the distribution of electrons of an given molecule or respective atoms in atomic or molecular orbitals.

The important there rules for electronic configuration given below:

Aufbau principle: This rule statues that ground state of an atom or ions electrons fill atomic orbitals of the lowest available energy levels before occupying higher levels. If consider the 1s shell is filled the 2s subshell is occupied.

Hund's Rule: The every orbital in a subshell is singly occupied with one electron before any one orbital is doubly occupied, and all electrons in singly occupied orbitals have the same spin.

Pauli exclusion rule: an atomic orbital may describe at most two electrons, each with opposite spin direction.

Atomic radius: The concept explain chemical element is a measured of the size of its atoms, in other words to measure the distance from the center of the nucleus to the boundary of the surrounding cloud of number of electrons.

Increase and decrease electro negativity: The less vacancy electrons an atoms has the least it will gain of electrons. Moreover the electron affinity decrease down the groups and from right to left across the periods on the periodic table, the reason is electrons are placed in a higher energy level far from the nucleus thus a decrease from its pull.

Electron attachment enthalpy: ΔEAH is defined as the enthalpy change occurring when a gaseous atom adds an electron forming a gaseous anion.

  A(g)+e-A-(g)----ElectronattachmententhalpyEAH

Electron affinity: The atoms is closely related to ΔEAH. The (EA) is equal in magnitude but opposite is sign to the internal energy change associated with a gas atom adding an electron.

  A(g)+e-A-(g)----ElectronaffinityEA=-ΔU       

e)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The element with the most negative electron attachment enthalpy in Group7A has to be predicted.

Concept Introduction:

Electronic configuration: The electronic configuration is the distribution of electrons of an given molecule or respective atoms in atomic or molecular orbitals.

The important there rules for electronic configuration given below:

Aufbau principle: This rule statues that ground state of an atom or ions electrons fill atomic orbitals of the lowest available energy levels before occupying higher levels. If consider the 1s shell is filled the 2s subshell is occupied.

Hund's Rule: The every orbital in a subshell is singly occupied with one electron before any one orbital is doubly occupied, and all electrons in singly occupied orbitals have the same spin.

Pauli exclusion rule: an atomic orbital may describe at most two electrons, each with opposite spin direction.

Atomic radius: The concept explain chemical element is a measured of the size of its atoms, in other words to measure the distance from the center of the nucleus to the boundary of the surrounding cloud of number of electrons.

Increase and decrease electro negativity: The less vacancy electrons an atoms has the least it will gain of electrons. Moreover the electron affinity decrease down the groups and from right to left across the periods on the periodic table, the reason is electrons are placed in a higher energy level far from the nucleus thus a decrease from its pull.

Electron attachment enthalpy: ΔEAH is defined as the enthalpy change occurring when a gaseous atom adds an electron forming a gaseous anion.

  A(g)+e-A-(g)----ElectronattachmententhalpyEAH

Electron affinity: The atoms is closely related to ΔEAH. The (EA) is equal in magnitude but opposite is sign to the internal energy change associated with a gas atom adding an electron.

  A(g)+e-A-(g)----ElectronaffinityEA=-ΔU       

f)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The element whose electron configuration is [Ar]3d104s2 has to be identified.

Concept Introduction:

Electronic configuration: The electronic configuration is the distribution of electrons of an given molecule or respective atoms in atomic or molecular orbitals.

The important there rules for electronic configuration given below:

Aufbau principle: This rule statues that ground state of an atom or ions electrons fill atomic orbitals of the lowest available energy levels before occupying higher levels. If consider the 1s shell is filled the 2s subshell is occupied.

Hund's Rule: The every orbital in a subshell is singly occupied with one electron before any one orbital is doubly occupied, and all electrons in singly occupied orbitals have the same spin.

Pauli exclusion rule: an atomic orbital may describe at most two electrons, each with opposite spin direction.

Atomic radius: The concept explain chemical element is a measured of the size of its atoms, in other words to measure the distance from the center of the nucleus to the boundary of the surrounding cloud of number of electrons.

Increase and decrease electro negativity: The less vacancy electrons an atoms has the least it will gain of electrons. Moreover the electron affinity decrease down the groups and from right to left across the periods on the periodic table, the reason is electrons are placed in a higher energy level far from the nucleus thus a decrease from its pull.

Electron attachment enthalpy: ΔEAH is defined as the enthalpy change occurring when a gaseous atom adds an electron forming a gaseous anion.

  A(g)+e-A-(g)----ElectronattachmententhalpyEAH

Electron affinity: The atoms is closely related to ΔEAH. The (EA) is equal in magnitude but opposite is sign to the internal energy change associated with a gas atom adding an electron.

  A(g)+e-A-(g)----ElectronaffinityEA=-ΔU       

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