   Chapter 7, Problem 34PS

Chapter
Section
Textbook Problem

Compare the elements B. Al, C, and Si. (a) Which has the most metallic character? (b) Which has the largest atomic radius? (c) Which has the most negative electron attachment enthalpy? (d) Place the three elements B, Al, and C in order of increasing first ionization energy.

a)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The most metallic character has to be predicted from B, Al, C and Si

Concept Introduction:

Atomic radius: The concept explain chemical element is a measured of the size of its atoms, in other words to measure the distance from the center of the nucleus to the boundary of the surrounding cloud of number of electrons.

Ionization energy (IE): The ionization energy is the required to remove an electron from an atom in the gas phase.

General formula of ionization energy= Atom in the ground state(g)Atom+(g)+eΔU=Ionizationenergy(IE)

Increase and decrease electro negativity: The less vacancy electrons an atoms has the least it will gain of electrons. Moreover the electron affinity decrease down the groups and from right to left across the periods on the periodic table, the reason is electrons are placed in a higher energy level far from the nucleus thus a decrease from its pull.

Electron attachment enthalpy: ΔEAH is defined as the enthalpy change occurring when a gaseous atom adds an electron forming a gaseous anion.

A(g)+e-A-(g)----ElectronattachmententhalpyEAH

Electron affinity: The atoms is closely related to ΔEAH. The (EA) is equal in magnitude but opposite is sign to the internal energy change associated with a gas atom adding an electron.

A(g)+e-A-(g)----ElectronaffinityEA=-ΔU

Explanation
• Analyzing for metallic character.
1. 1. The highest first ionization enthalpy is seen in Boron(B), carbon(C), Silicon (Si) as it is non metal which generally have higher

b)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The largest atomic radius has to be explained for given the P-block elements of (B, Al, C and Si).

Concept Introduction:

Atomic radius: The concept explain chemical element is a measured of the size of its atoms, in other words to measure the distance from the center of the nucleus to the boundary of the surrounding cloud of number of electrons.

Ionization energy (IE): The ionization energy is the required to remove an electron from an atom in the gas phase.

General formula of ionization energy= Atom in the ground state(g)Atom+(g)+eΔU=Ionizationenergy(IE)

Increase and decrease electro negativity: The less vacancy electrons an atoms has the least it will gain of electrons. Moreover the electron affinity decrease down the groups and from right to left across the periods on the periodic table, the reason is electrons are placed in a higher energy level far from the nucleus thus a decrease from its pull.

Electron attachment enthalpy: ΔEAH is defined as the enthalpy change occurring when a gaseous atom adds an electron forming a gaseous anion.

A(g)+e-A-(g)----ElectronattachmententhalpyEAH

Electron affinity: The atoms is closely related to ΔEAH. The (EA) is equal in magnitude but opposite is sign to the internal energy change associated with a gas atom adding an electron.

A(g)+e-A-(g)----ElectronaffinityEA=-ΔU

c)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The most negative electron attachment enthalpy has to be explained for the given P-block elements of (B, Al, C and Si).

Concept Introduction:

Atomic radius: The concept explain chemical element is a measured of the size of its atoms, in other words to measure the distance from the center of the nucleus to the boundary of the surrounding cloud of number of electrons.

Ionization energy (IE): The ionization energy is the required to remove an electron from an atom in the gas phase.

General formula of ionization energy= Atom in the ground state(g)Atom+(g)+eΔU=Ionizationenergy(IE)

Increase and decrease electro negativity: The less vacancy electrons an atoms has the least it will gain of electrons. Moreover the electron affinity decrease down the groups and from right to left across the periods on the periodic table, the reason is electrons are placed in a higher energy level far from the nucleus thus a decrease from its pull.

Electron attachment enthalpy: ΔEAH is defined as the enthalpy change occurring when a gaseous atom adds an electron forming a gaseous anion.

A(g)+e-A-(g)----ElectronattachmententhalpyEAH

Electron affinity: The atoms is closely related to ΔEAH. The (EA) is equal in magnitude but opposite is sign to the internal energy change associated with a gas atom adding an electron.

A(g)+e-A-(g)----ElectronaffinityEA=-ΔU

d)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The increasing order of first ionization energy properties has to be explained for the given P-block elements of (B, Al, C and Si).

Concept Introduction:

Atomic radius: The concept explain chemical element is a measured of the size of its atoms, in other words to measure the distance from the center of the nucleus to the boundary of the surrounding cloud of number of electrons.

Ionization energy (IE): The ionization energy is the required to remove an electron from an atom in the gas phase.

General formula of ionization energy= Atom in the ground state(g)Atom+(g)+eΔU=Ionizationenergy(IE)

Increase and decrease electro negativity: The less vacancy electrons an atoms has the least it will gain of electrons. Moreover the electron affinity decrease down the groups and from right to left across the periods on the periodic table, the reason is electrons are placed in a higher energy level far from the nucleus thus a decrease from its pull.

Electron attachment enthalpy: ΔEAH is defined as the enthalpy change occurring when a gaseous atom adds an electron forming a gaseous anion.

A(g)+e-A-(g)----ElectronattachmententhalpyEAH

Electron affinity: The atoms is closely related to ΔEAH. The (EA) is equal in magnitude but opposite is sign to the internal energy change associated with a gas atom adding an electron.

A(g)+e-A-(g)----ElectronaffinityEA=-ΔU

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