Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074



Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074
Textbook Problem

The deep blue color of sapphires comes from the presence of Fe2+ and Ti4+ in solid Al2O3. Using spdf notation with the noble gas notation, write the electron configuration for each of these ions.

Interpretation Introduction


The electron configuration of Fe2+ and Ti4+ using spdf notation with noble gas notation has to be written.

Concept Introduction:

Electronic configuration: The electronic configuration is the distribution of electrons (e-) of an given molecule or respective atoms in atomic or molecular orbital’s.

Aufbau principle: This rule statues that ground state of an atom or ions electrons fill atomic orbitals of the lowest available energy levels before occupying higher levels. If consider the 1s shell is filled the 2s subshell is occupied.

Hund's Rule: The every orbital in a subshell is singly occupied with one electron before any one orbital is doubly occupied, and all electrons in singly occupied orbitals have the same spin.

Pauli exclusion rule: an atomic orbital may describe at most two electrons, each with opposite spin direction.

  • Let consider the Iron (Fe2+) systems:

The Iron (Fe) was oxidized to (Fe2+) ions, it lose two electrons from outermost (4s) orbital’s.

  AtomicnumberofIron(Fe)= 26Loss of two electrons in (Fe)atoms= 26-2 = 24spdfwith orbtital notation=[1s22s22p63s23p63d64s0]spdfwith noble gas notation=[Ar]3d64s0Orbitalboxnotation       =  [Ar]3d64s0

Hence, the electron configuration of Fe2+ is [Ar]3d64s0

  • Let consider the Titanium (Ti4+) system:

The Titanium (Ti) has four electrons in the (4s) orbitals and (3s) electrons in 3d orbitals, the electrons filling method presented below

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