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Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074

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BuyFindarrow_forward

Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074
Textbook Problem

Use the atomic radii of scandium, yttrium, lanthanum, and lutetium to answer the questions below.

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  1. a. Explain why lutetium has a smaller atomic radius than lanthanum, even though it has a greater number of electrons.
  2. b. Do the atomic radii argue for the placement of La or Lu below Y in the periodic table? Explain.

a

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The reason that supports lutetium has a smaller atomic radius than lanthanum has to be explained.

Concept Introduction:

Atomic radius: The concept explain chemical element is a measured of the size of its atoms, in other words to measure the distance from the center of the nucleus to the boundary of the surrounding cloud of number of electrons.

Electronic configuration: The electronic configuration is the distribution of electrons of a given molecule or respective atoms in atomic or molecular orbitals.

The Aufbau principle: This rule statues that ground state of an atom or ions electrons fill atomic orbitals of the lowest available energy levels before occupying higher levels. If consider the 1s shell is filled the 2s subshell is occupied.

Hund's Rule: The every orbital in a subshell is singly occupied with one electron before any one orbital is doubly occupied, and all electrons in singly occupied orbitals have the same spin.

General electronic configuration of f-block: The general the electronic configuration of these elements is (n-2)f1–14(n-1)d0-10ns1–2. The (n–1) stands for the inner d orbitals which may have one to ten electrons and the outermost ns orbital may have one or two electrons. The two rows of elements present at the bottom of the periodic table are called the (4f) series or lanthanides and (5f) or actinides. They are also called inner transition elements and are placed separately in the periodic table.

Explanation

The electronic configuration of lanthanum (La)

  Atomicnumber (Z)oflanthanum (La)= 57spdfwith noble gas notation=[Xe]5d16s2Orbitalboxnotation       =[Xe]5d16s2

The electronic configuration of Lutetium (Lu)

  Atomicnumber (Z)ofLutetium (Lu)= 71spdfwith noble gas notation=[Xe]4f145d16s2Orbitalboxnotation       [Xe]

b

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The placement of La or Lu below Y in the periodic table; the reason has to be explained.

Concept Introduction:

Atomic radius: The concept explain chemical element is a measured of the size of its atoms, in other words to measure the distance from the center of the nucleus to the boundary of the surrounding cloud of number of electrons.

Electronic configuration: The electronic configuration is the distribution of electrons of an given molecule or respective atoms in atomic or molecular orbitals.

The Aufbau principle: This rule statues that ground state of an atom or ions electrons fill atomic orbitals of the lowest available energy levels before occupying higher levels. If consider the 1s shell is filled the 2s subshell is occupied.

Hund's Rule: The every orbital in a subshell is singly occupied with one electron before any one orbital is doubly occupied, and all electrons in singly occupied orbitals have the same spin.

General electronic configuration of f-block: The general the electronic configuration of these elements is (n-2)f1–14(n-1)d0-10ns1–2. The (n–1) stands for the inner d orbitals which may have one to ten electrons and the outermost ns orbital may have one or two electrons. The two rows of elements present at the bottom of the periodic table are called the (4f) series or lanthanides and (5f) or actinides. They are also called inner transition elements. Hence they are placed separately in the periodic table.

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