   Chapter 7, Problem 85SCQ

Chapter
Section
Textbook Problem

Thionyl chloride. SOCl2, is an important chlorinating and oxidizing agent in organic chemistry. It is prepared industrially by oxygen atom transfer from SO3 to SC12.SO3(g) + SCl2(g) → SO2(g) + SOCl2,(g) (a) Give the electron configuration for an atom of sulfur using an orbital box diagram. Do not use the noble gas notation. (b) Using the configuration given in part (a), write a set of quantum numbers for the highest- energy electron in a sulfur atom. (c) What element involved in this reaction (O, S, CI) should have the smallest ionization energy? The smallest radius? (d) Which should be smaller: the sulfide ion, S2–, or a sulfur atom, S? (e) If you want to make 675 g of SOCl2, what mass of SCI2 is required? (f) If you use 10.0 g of SO3 and 10.0 g of SCl2, what is the theoretical yield of SOCl2? (g) rH° for the reaction of SO3 and SCl2 is -96.0 kl/mol SOCl2 produced. Using data in Appendix L, calculate the standard molar enthalpy of formation of SCl2.

a)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The electron configuration of Sulfur atom has to be given.

Concept Introduction:

Electronic configuration: The electronic configuration is the distribution of electrons of an given molecule or respective atoms in atomic or molecular orbitals.

The important there rules for electronic configuration given below:

Aufbau principle: This rule statues that ground state of an atom or ions electrons fill atomic orbitals of the lowest available energy levels before occupying higher levels. If consider the 1s shell is filled the 2s subshell is occupied.

Explanation

According to periodic table, the atomic number of sulfur atom is (16).

1. 1. The (s,p,d, f) and orbital box notations,  the (16) electrons are assigned in the orbitals based on the order of filling.
2. 2. The first (10) electrons are identified by the symbol of the Ne noble gas. The remaining (6) electrons are assigning to the 3s and 3p sub-shells. Thus, the Hund’s rule is followed in the box notation.

AtomicnumberofSulfur(S)=16Complete (spdf)notationof(S)=1s22s22p63s23p4Orbital filling method=

b)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

For the highest energy electron in sulfur atom a set of quantum numbers has to be written.

Concept Introduction:

Electronic configuration: The electronic configuration is the distribution of electrons of an given molecule or respective atoms in atomic or molecular orbitals.

The important there rules for electronic configuration given below:

Aufbau principle: This rule statues that ground state of an atom or ions electrons fill atomic orbitals of the lowest available energy levels before occupying higher levels. If consider the 1s shell is filled the 2s subshell is occupied.

Quantum numbers: These terms are explained for the distribution of electron density in an atom. They are derived from the mathematical solution of Schrodinger’s equation for the hydrogen atom.  The types of quantum numbers are the principal quantum number (n), the angular momentum quantum number (l), the magnetic quantum number (ml) and the electron spin quantum number (ms). Each atomic orbital in an atom is categorized by a unique set of the quantum numbers.

c)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The smallest ionization energy of the given element and smallest radius has to be predicted.

Concept Introduction:

Ionization energy (IE): The ionization energy is the required to remove an electron from an atom in the gas phase.

General formula of ionization energy= Atom in the ground state(g)Atom+(g)+eΔU=Ionizationenergy(IE)

d)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The smaller atomic or ionic radius has to be predicted.

Concept Introduction:

Atomic radii or ionic radii: The distance between the nucleus and outer valence electrons is said to the atomic radii or ionic radii.

e)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The amount of SCl2 required has to be calculated.

Concept Introduction:

Number of Mole: Dividing mass of compound by molar mass of same compound obtain the number of mole.

No.Of moles =massmolarmass

f)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The theoretical yield of SOCl2 has to be calculated.

Concept Introduction:

Number of Mole: Dividing mass of compound by molar mass of same compound obtains the number of mole.

No.Of moles =massmolarmass

Theoretical yield: It is the maximum mass of product that can be obtained from a chemical reaction

g)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The standard molar enthalpy of formation of SCl2 has to be calculated.

Concept Introduction:

Ionization energy (IE): The ionization energy is the required to remove an electron from an atom in the gas phase.

General formula of ionization energy= Atom in the ground state(g)Atom+(g)+eΔU=Ionizationenergy(IE)

Electron attachment enthalpy: ΔEAH is defined as the enthalpy change occurring when a gaseous atom adds an electron forming a gaseous anion.

A(g)+e-A-(g)----ElectronattachmententhalpyEAH

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