   Chapter 7, Problem 18PS

Chapter
Section
Textbook Problem

Which of the following statements correctly describes the value of the effective nuclear charge. Z*, felt by (a) the 2s electron at a large distance from a Li atom? (i) Z* equals 1. (ii) Z* is between 1 and 3. (iii) Z* equals 3. (b) the 2s electron at its most probable distance from the nucleus of a Li atom? (i) Z* equals 1. (ii) Z* is between 1 and 3. (iii) Z* equals 3.

a)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The lithium atom its (2s) electrons large distance has to be explained.

Concept Introduction:

Nuclear charge (Z*): The effective nuclear charge generally denoted by (Zeff or Z*) it is the net positive charge experienced by an electron in a multi-electron atom. This word “effective” is used because the shielding effect of negatively charged electron prevents higher orbital electrons experience the full nuclear charge.

Increase and decrease electro negativity: The less vacancy electrons an atoms has the least it will gain of electrons. Moreover the electron affinity decrease down the groups and from right to left across the periods on the periodic table, the reason is electrons are placed in a higher energy level far from the nucleus thus a decrease from its pull.

Explanation

Analysing for large distance from a Li atom:

The large distance from the nucleus the third electrons in lithium (Li)will experience a +1 charge the net effect of the two (1s2) electrons total charge (Z*= -2) and the nucleus (+3 charge).

So this (1s) electrons screen (screening effect) the (2s) from experience the full nuclear charge, however as the 2s electrons wave percentages the 1s electron region it experience the attraction o...

b)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The lithium atom its (2s) electrons most probable distance has to be explained.

Concept Introduction:

Nuclear charge (Z*): The effective nuclear charge generally denoted by (Zeff or Z*) it is the net positive charge experienced by an electron in a multi-electron atom. This word “effective” is used because the shielding effect of negatively charged electron prevents higher orbital electrons experience the full nuclear charge.

Increase and decrease electro negativity: The less vacancy electrons an atoms has the least it will gain of electrons. Moreover the electron affinity decrease down the groups and from right to left across the periods on the periodic table, the reason is electrons are placed in a higher energy level far from the nucleus thus a decrease from its pull.

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