   Chapter 7, Problem 8PS

Chapter
Section
Textbook Problem

The lanthanides, once called the rare earth elements, are really only “medium rare” Using noble gas and spdf notations, depict reasonable electron configurations for the following elements.(a) Samarium, Sm. This lanthanide is used in magnetic materials.(b) Ytterbium, Yb. This element was named for the village of Ytterby in Sweden, where a mineral source of the element was found.

a)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The electronic configuration of Samarium (Sm) has to be derived using the noble gas and spdf notation.

Concept Introduction:

Electronic configuration: The electronic configuration is the distribution of electrons of a given molecule or respective atoms in atomic or molecular orbitals.

The important there rules for electronic configuration given below:

Aufbau principle: This rule statues that ground state of an atom or ions electrons fill atomic orbitals of the lowest available energy levels before occupying higher levels. If consider the 1s shell is filled the 2s subshell is occupied.

Hund's Rule: The every orbital in a subshell is singly occupied with one electron before any one orbital is doubly occupied, and all electrons in singly occupied orbitals have the same spin.

Pauli exclusion rule: an atomic orbital may describe at most two electrons, each with opposite spin direction.

Explanation

The Samarium (Sm) electron filling method has shown below.

1. 1. The noble gas notation: The atomic number is 62. The first 54 electrons are identified by the symbol of the Xenon (Xe); a noble gas. The remaining 8 electrons are assigning to the 4f, 5d, 6s sub-shells. Hence the Hund’s rule is followed in the box notation.

AtomicnumberofSamarium(Sm)=62Complete (spdf)notationof(Sm)=1s22s22p63s23p63d104s24p64d105s25p64f65d06s2Orbital filling method=1s22s22p63s23p63d104s24p6

b)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The electronic configuration of Ytterbium (Yb) has to be derived using the noble gas and spdf notation.

Concept Introduction:

Electronic configuration: The electronic configuration is the distribution of electrons of a given molecule or respective atoms in atomic or molecular orbitals.

The important there rules for electronic configuration given below:

Aufbau principle: This rule statues that ground state of an atom or ions electrons fill atomic orbitals of the lowest available energy levels before occupying higher levels. If consider the 1s shell is filled the 2s subshell is occupied.

Hund's Rule: The every orbital in a subshell is singly occupied with one electron before any one orbital is doubly occupied, and all electrons in singly occupied orbitals have the same spin.

Pauli exclusion rule: an atomic orbital may describe at most two electrons, each with opposite spin direction.

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