   Chapter 7, Problem 83SCQ

Chapter
Section
Textbook Problem

The discovery of two new elements (atomic numbers 113 and 115) was announced in February 2004. (a) Use spdf and noble gas notations to give the electron configurations of these two elements. (b) For each of these elements, name another element in the same periodic group. (c) Element 113 was made by firing the nucleus of a light atom at a heavy americium atom. The two nuclei combine to give a nucleus with 113 protons. What light atom was used as a projectile?

a)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The electronic configuration of given element has to be derived using the (s, p, d, f) orbital box notation method and noble gas configuration methods.

Concept Introduction:

Electronic configuration: The electronic configuration is the distribution of electrons (e-) of an given molecule or respective atoms in atomic or molecular orbital’s.

Aufbau principle: This rule statues that ground state of an atom or ions electrons fill atomic orbitals of the lowest available energy levels before occupying higher levels. If consider the 1s shell is filled the 2s subshell is occupied.

Hund's Rule: The every orbital in a subshell is singly occupied with one electron before any one orbital is doubly occupied, and all electrons in singly occupied orbitals have the same spin.

Pauli exclusion rule: an atomic orbital may describe at most two electrons, each with opposite spin direction.

Explanation
• The atomic number of (Z=113) is a Nihonium (Nh):

AtomicnumberofNihonium (Nh)=113Complete (spdf)notationof(Mt)=1s22s22p63s23p63d104s24p64d105s25p64f145d10 6s2 6p6 5f14 6d10 7s2 7p1Orbital filling method=1s22s22p63s23p63d104s24p64d105s25p6

b)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

For each of these elements, the another element in the same periodic group has to be named.

Concept Introduction:

Electronic configuration: The electronic configuration is the distribution of electrons (e-) of an given molecule or respective atoms in atomic or molecular orbital’s.

Aufbau principle: This rule statues that ground state of an atom or ions electrons fill atomic orbitals of the lowest available energy levels before occupying higher levels. If consider the 1s shell is filled the 2s subshell is occupied.

Hund's Rule: The every orbital in a subshell is singly occupied with one electron before any one orbital is doubly occupied, and all electrons in singly occupied orbitals have the same spin.

Pauli exclusion rule: an atomic orbital may describe at most two electrons, each with opposite spin direction.

c)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The light atom used as a projectile has to be identified.

Concept Introduction:

Electronic configuration: The electronic configuration is the distribution of electrons (e-) of an given molecule or respective atoms in atomic or molecular orbital’s.

Aufbau principle: This rule statues that ground state of an atom or ions electrons fill atomic orbitals of the lowest available energy levels before occupying higher levels. If consider the 1s shell is filled the 2s subshell is occupied.

Hund's Rule: The every orbital in a subshell is singly occupied with one electron before any one orbital is doubly occupied, and all electrons in singly occupied orbitals have the same spin.

Pauli exclusion rule: an atomic orbital may describe at most two electrons, each with opposite spin direction.

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