Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074



Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074
Textbook Problem

The effective nuclear charge, Z*, is the net force of attraction experienced by the outermost electron in an atom. Which of the following statements best describes how Z* varies among the elements of the second period (Li to F)?

  1. (a) regular increase from Li to F
  2. (b) regular decrease from Li to F
  3. (c) general increase from U to F, but with exceptions

Interpretation Introduction


The effective nuclear charge (Z*) has to explained for given Lithium (Li) to fluorine (F) atoms.

Concept Introduction:

Nuclear charge (Z*): The effective nuclear charge generally denoted by (Zeff or Z*) it is the net positive charge experienced by an electron in a multi-electron atom. This word “effective” is used because the shielding effect of negatively charged electron prevents higher orbital electrons experience the full nuclear charge.

Increase and decrease electro negativity: The less vacancy electrons an atoms has the least it will gain of electrons. Moreover the electron affinity decrease down the groups and from right to left across the periods on the periodic table, the reason is electrons are placed in a higher energy level far from the nucleus thus a decrease from its pull.


Reason for correct options:

  1. a) The effective nuclear charge was increased, the periodic table clearly explain from left to right across a period the effective nuclear charge increase. The statement (a) correctly matched than statement (b) and (c) wrong.

The general formula for effective nuclear charge Z*=Z-S

Here Z*= Highest occupied orbital, Z= Atomic number and S= Screening constant.

The increasing order from Li to F values are shown below,


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