   Chapter 7, Problem 19PS

Chapter
Section
Textbook Problem

List the first five orbitals (the five orbitals in an atom at lowest energy) in order of filling, according to the Aufbau principle.

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

First five orbital filling in order of filling, according to the Aufbau principle has to be listed.

Concept Introduction:

Electronic configuration: The electronic configuration is the distribution of electrons of an given molecule or respective atoms in atomic or molecular orbital’s. The important there rules for electronic configuration given below.

Aufbau principle: This rule statues that ground state of an atom or ions electrons fill atomic orbitals of the lowest available energy levels before occupying higher levels. If consider the 1s shell is filled the 2s subshell is occupied.

Hund's Rule: The every orbital in a subshell is singly occupied with one electron before any one orbital is doubly occupied, and all electrons in singly occupied orbitals have the same spin.

Pauli exclusion rule: an atomic orbital may describe at most two electrons, each with opposite spin direction.

Explanation

The orbital filling methods rules are we discussed below.

1. 1. Electrons are assigned to subshell in order of increasing (n+l) value.
2. 2. Than two subshell with the same value of (n+l) electrons are assigned first to the subshell of lower (n).

According to this principle the first five orbital filling methods are shown below.

Electrons are assigned to the (1s) subshell (n+l=1+0=1) before the (2s) subshell (n+l=2+0=2).

Than electrons are assigned to the (2s) subshell (n+l=2+0=2) before the (2p) subshell (n+l=2+1=3).

Further the electrons are assigned to 2p orbital (n+l =2+1=3) before the 3s subshell (n+l =3+0=3) because (n) for the (2p) electrons is less than (n) for the (3s) electrons...

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