   Chapter 7, Problem 29PS

Chapter
Section
Textbook Problem

Select the atom or ion in each pair that has the larger radius. (a) Cl or Cl− (b) Al or O (c) In or I

(a)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The larger atomic radius has to be selected given the different periodic elements and its ions.

Concept Introduction:

Atomic radius: The concept explain chemical element is a measured of the size of its atoms, in other words to measure the distance from the center of the nucleus to the boundary of the surrounding cloud of number of electrons.

Increase and decrease electro negativity: The less vacancy electrons an atoms has the least it will gain of electrons. Moreover the electron affinity decrease down the groups and from right to left across the periods on the periodic table, the reason is electrons are placed in a higher energy level far from the nucleus thus a decrease from its pull.

Electronegativity: It is measure of the tendency of an atom to attract a bonding pair of electrons. For example the (F) fluorine is more electronegative element is assigned a value f (4.0) and values range down to cesium (CS) and francium (Fr) which are the largest electronegative at (0.7) range, generally the Pauling scale is used to analyze the electronegative range (or) properties.

Explanation

According to periodic table was clearly explained the all (s,p, d, f) block elements atomic size will increase when left side to right side. Than all atomic size will be increase when above to below.

Let us consider the first statement (a) of Chlorine (Cl) and Chlorine (Cl-) ions.

The chlorine (Cl,99 pm) atomic radius less than chlorine (Cl -, 188 pm) ions this correct reason due to the addition of shells (or) addition one electrons in outermost (3p) orbital and chlorine (Cl) atomic number (Z=17), (Cl-) atomic number (Z=18), here (Cl) ions has a larger atomic radius than chlorine (Cl) atom  (See the electron filling method, Figure 1). So this attraction between the nucleus and the electrons decreases as you move to the left of a period and down a group.

AtomicnumberofChlorine(Cl)=17spdfwith orbtital notation=[1s22s22p63s23p5]Orbital filling method       1s22s22p63s23p5spdfwith noble gas notation=[Ne]3s23p5Orbitalboxnotation       = [Ne]3s23p5

When (Cl) was gain to (Cl-) ions, it gain for one electron in outermost (3s) orbitals, hence this orbital notation method shows below

(b)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The larger atomic radius has to be identified given the different periodic elements and its ions.

Concept Introduction:

Atomic radius: The concept explain chemical element is a measured of the size of its atoms, in other words to measure the distance from the center of the nucleus to the boundary of the surrounding cloud of number of electrons.

Increase and decrease electro negativity: The less vacancy electrons an atoms has the least it will gain of electrons. Moreover the electron affinity decrease down the groups and from right to left across the periods on the periodic table, the reason is electrons are placed in a higher energy level far from the nucleus thus a decrease from its pull.

Electronegativity: It is measure of the tendency of an atom to attract a bonding pair of electrons. For example the (F) fluorine is more electronegative element is assigned a value f (4.0) and values range down to cesium (CS) and francium (Fr) which are the largest electronegative at (0.7) range, generally the Pauling scale is used to analyze the electronegative range (or) properties.

(c)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The larger atomic radius has to be identified given the different periodic elements and its ions.

Concept Introduction:

Atomic radius: The concept explain chemical element is a measured of the size of its atoms, in other words to measure the distance from the center of the nucleus to the boundary of the surrounding cloud of number of electrons.

Increase and decrease electro negativity: The less vacancy electrons an atoms has the least it will gain of electrons. Moreover the electron affinity decrease down the groups and from right to left across the periods on the periodic table, the reason is electrons are placed in a higher energy level far from the nucleus thus a decrease from its pull.

Electronegativity: It is measure of the tendency of an atom to attract a bonding pair of electrons. For example the (F) fluorine is more electronegative element is assigned a value f (4.0) and values range down to cesium (CS) and francium (Fr) which are the largest electronegative at (0.7) range, generally the Pauling scale is used to analyze the electronegative range (or) properties.

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